nedeľa 16. decembra 2012

Theory of Evolution

                     What is theory of evolution?

Theory of evolution show that variation is the difference in genes of members in the same species. Another condition is selection, which consists of survival of the members of the species depending on their genetical differences.
The third aspect of evolution is retention of the "chosen members" that were able to adapt to the surrounding. Universally said, evolution is the survival od the fittest.

                   Nature vs. Unnature
The nature vs unnature is concept of struggle between heridity and environment and which of these two influences an individual more. Genes in DNA are the foundation of traits, yet without organism they are useless. For example, one may be born with genes for better running, yet without good nutrition provided by the environment those genes will neve be developed in traits. Genes develop the right traits only in the right environment. Genes themselves are the genetic code, also called genotype, that is part of the body, yet not all of it is expressed. The genes that are actually expressed as traits are called phenotypes.
                What is wrong with the concept of “nature vs. nurture”?
 Heredity and environment may have an equal effect on the development
               What is social Darwinism?
When the idea of evolution spread through the Victorian society, some peple like Herbert Spencer thought that people who are at the top of the society are more fit. It was spencer who came up with the term "survival of the fittest".
5. Explain eugenics.
People realized that some individuals are more capable than others. They came up with an idea that if only the most capable were able to reproduce, they could create superior human race, just like people breed dogs and roses. This idea of breeding superior human race is called eugenetics.
6. What is the problem with the concept of eugenics?
Eugenetics is based on misunderstanding of the theory of evolution. It assumes that genes of some individuals are more superior compared to the other individuals. While this may seem true, with every sexual reproduction these genes switch around and new combinations with new traits are expressed. This fake superiority makes some of the individuals hink that they have more right to reproduce than others or even prevent them from reproducing.
7. What does the term “fitness” mean in relation to evolution?
Biological fitness in Darwin's term means an allele of a gene that makes its carrier more sucessful than other alelles of that gene. This carrier is morel likely to live sucessful life and produce more helathy offsprings. An example is an allele that has a resistance to some sort of deadly disease.
8. What is meant by“genetic determination”?
Belief that genes and the environment determine physical and mental development.
9. What is“fixation”?
Fixation is a new "froezen"trait. When a gene becomes ccommon in population due to genetic, the population becomse comitted to it can be changed only due to mutation.
10. What is“canalization”?
It is a way of fixating genes where a trait is "controlled by family of genes for which there is only one allele in humans that all produce the same result" (page 32). In this case, the phenotypes are all the same.
11. What is“punctuated equilibrium”?
In African lakes, geologists found meters of snail skells thanks to whci they can recognize the differences of their adaptations throughout thousands of generations. However, not all generations differe and some traits are unchanged during many generations. Punctuated equilibrium is a time where natural selection exists, but it serves to maintain the existing form.
12. How does evolution relate to psychology?
Evolutionary psychology is another aspect of evolution. It applies biological changes to psychology and asks question such as "What are the bases of expirience, behavior, mind, and memory, of development and social interaction? Where do they come fom, and what are they for?" (page 3). They same way our bodies and the phycical structures were adapted, the same way was our mind.
Theo13. Examine one evolutionary explanation of behavior. Theorizing aAout Violen Crime (page 65)
It was observed that males vary in the tendencies to take care of their children. There are the males who are willing to commit to parenthood and take care of their children, also called dads. Then there are males who do not go beyond donating their sperm, these are called cads.
Females are due to sexual selection theory more attracted to dads, who are more likely to take care of their offsprings, which highers their chance of reproduction. Even though their chances to pass on their genes are lower, cads also have opportunity to reproduce. They can promise loyalty and then leave after the female is impregnated. They can intimidate rival males, exaggarate their abilities as good providers by stealing from others, or they can foce someone to have sex with them when all the other "nice" methods fail. They question is whether their behavior is genetically programmed. One of the answers may be that there is a condition called psychopacy, that is more common in males and causes them to be more manipulative, agressive and violent.
In 2002 in the USA, 19 884 men were arrested for rape compared to 278 women for the same aasault.

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